Background: Autoimmune thyroid disease is one of the most common organ-specific autoimmune disorders, in which Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT) were the most common clinical expressions. GD is characterized by hyperthyroidism due to excessive production of thyroid hormone induced by TSH receptor antibody. Imbalance between Th1/Th2 cells in producing antibodies that regulated by T-regulator cell believed to be the cause of this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the relationship between Tregulator cell and thyroid antibody (TRAb) of thyroid autoimmune disorder, especially Graves' disease. Method: T-regulator (T-reg), thyroid antibody (TRAb), thyroid hormone; FT4 (free thyroxine) and TSH of peripheral blood samples from Graves' disease patient was analyzed using ELISA. T-regulator cells were identified using Human Forkhead Box P3 (Foxp3) kit provided by Cloud-Clone Corp. Furthermore, statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 21 software. Result: There was significant correlation between T regulator cell expression and thyroid antibody (TRAb) in Graves' disease patient (p<0.05). In our study, T-regulator cell expression using Human FoxP3 kit was found increase with mean serum 23.51 pg/mL (p value >0.05; reference range 0.312-20 pg/mL) while TRAb was also found increased with mean serum 5.63 pg/mL (p value >0.05, reference range <0.1 pg/mL). Conclusion: Expression of T-regulator cells and increased of TRAb levels may be involved in the pathogenesis of disease through cytokine produced by T-reg cells, such as TGF-β and IL-10, not only by the quantity of T-reg expression.
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